TABLE OF CONTENTS      January/February 2015 • Volume 26 • Issue 1


Mycobacterium tuberculosis: 2014 Clinical trials in review
KB Laupland, L Valiquette

The benefits of influenza vaccine in pregnancy for the fetus and the infant younger than six months of age
NE MacDonald, JC McDonald, Canadian Paediatric Society, Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee

Hepatitis C virus seroconversion among HIV-positive men who have sex with men with no history of injection drug use: Results from a clinical HIV cohort
AN Burchell, SL Gardner, T Mazzulli, M Manno, J Raboud, VG Allen, AM Bayoumi, R Kaul, F McGee, P Millson, RS Remis, W Wobeser, C Cooper, SB Rourke, on behalf of the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study Team

It has recently become clear that hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be sexually transmitted among men who have sex with men; in fact, outbreaks of HCV in this population have been documented. Sexual transmission was previously considered to be rare, but may be more common in this population due to both biological and behavioural/social factors. Accordingly, this retrospective study investigated the incidence of HCV seroconversion in this population in Ontario between 2000 and 2010.


Cost effectiveness of ‘on demand’ HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis for non-injection drug-using men who have sex with men in Canada
E Ouellet, M Durand, JR Guertin, J LeLorier, CL Tremblay

Pre-exposure prophylaxis for individuals who are at high risk for HIV infection has been shown to be effective at preventing infection. The authors of this article aimed to investigate whether ‘on-demand’ pre-exposure prophylaxis is also cost effective, specifically in Canada in a population of men who have sex with men, who are at higher risk for HIV infection. The authors used multiple methods to generate a thorough cost-effectiveness analysis that has implications for the use of this therapy in Canada.


Low awareness but positive attitudes toward fecal transplantation in Ontario physicians
M Dennis, MJ Salpeter, S Hota

Fecal transplantation has been shown to have remarkable efficacy for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, and is generally considered to be a low-risk procedure. However, uptake of this relatively new treatment has been low. The authors of this article conducted a questionnaire-based study to assess the knowledge of and attitudes toward fecal transplantation among a sample of health care professionals.


Value of an aggregate index in describing the impact of trends in antimicrobial resistance for Escherichia coli
DM Patrick, C Chambers, D Purych, M Chong, D George, F Marra

Typically, rates of resistance to various antibiotics in a given pathogen are assessed for a single drug at a time, in the setting of a particular type of infection. A more cohesive analysis is the drug resistance index, which incorporates resistance to multiple drugs for a given pathogen. The authors of this article developed a drug resistance index for Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections in British Columbia.


An elderly long-term care resident with crusted scabies
M Sandre, F Ralevski, N Rau

Crusted scabies, also referred to as Norwegian scabies, is a highly contagious infection of the skin caused by Sarcoptes scabiei mites. The authors report a case involving a 94-year-old woman with dementia who presented with symptoms of crusted scabies, which were initially believed to be due to a different skin condition. The risk factors as well as appropriate treatment courses for this infection are also reviewed.


Subacute bacterial endocarditis caused by Cardiobacterium hominis: A case report
D Wong, J Carson, A Johnson

Cardiobacterium hominis is a fastidious organism that can rarely cause subacute bacterial endocarditis. This report describes a case involving a 47-year-old man with subacute endocarditis due to C hominis; the isolate was initally found to be resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, but was later found to be susceptible using an alternative method. The authors discuss the likely cause of this error and emphasize the importance of adherence to fully validated methods for the determination of antibiotic susceptibilities.


Fournier’s gangrene caused by Listeria monocytogenes as the primary organism
S Asahata, Y Hirai, Y Ainoda, T Fujita, Y Okada, K Kikuchi

Fournier’s gangrene is a necrotizing infection of the scrotal region, and is typically caused by Enterobacteriaceae and anaerobic bacteria. This report describes a case involving a 70-year-old man of Japanese descent who developed Fournier’s gangrene that was found to be caused by Listeria monocytogenes. The patient’s unique risk factors are discussed.


Trichosporon asahii infection after total knee arthroplasty: A case report and review of the literature
Q Zuo, L Dong, W Mu, L Zhou, T Hu, H Zhang

Trichosporon asahii is a fungus that is widespread in the natural environment and has the potential to cause infections, although T asahii infections are very rare among individuals who are not immunocompromised. The authors of this article describe a case involving a 73-year-old immunocompetent woman who developed an infection with T asahii following bilateral total knee arthroplasty. The authors also review the literature regarding T asahii infection.


Pasteurella species peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis: Household pets as a risk factor
PG Poliquin, P Lagacé-Wiens, M Verrelli, DW Allen, JM Embil

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an alternative to hemodialysis that is preferable for some patients; however, is it associated with increased risk for peritonitis due to the catheter insertion in the peritoneum. A particular risk factor for peritonitis in patients undergoing PD is exposure to household pets because one of the most common causative organisms, Pasteurella multocida, is known to colonize the upper respiratory tract in the majority of cats and dogs. This review includes both a review of PD-associated peritonitis cases occuring in patients enrolled in the Manitoba Renal Program and a review of cases published in the literature. Recommendations for therapy are also described.


Guidance for practitioners on the use of antiviral drugs to control influenza outbreaks in long-term care facilities in Canada, 2014-2015 season
FY Aoki, UD Allen, HG Stiver, M Laverdière, D Skowronski, GA Evans

The AMMI Canada Guidelines document ‘The use of antiviral drugs for influenza: A foundation document for practitioners’, published in the Autumn 2013 issue of the Journal, outlines the recommendations for the use of antiviral drugs to treat influenza. This article, which represents the first of two updates to these guidelines published in the current issue of the Journal, aims to inform health care professionals of the increased risk for influenza in long-term care facilities due to a documented mismatch between the components chosen for this season’s vaccine and currently circulating influenza strains. Adjusted recommendations for the use of antiviral drugs for influenza in long-term care facilities for this season are provided.


Guidance on the use of antiviral drugs for influenza in acute care facilities in Canada, 2014-2015
HG Stiver, GA Evans, FY Aoki, UD Allen, M Laverdière

This article represents the second update to the AMMI Canada Guidelines document on the use of antiviral drugs for influenza. The article aims to inform health care professionals of the increased risk for influenza in long-term care facilities due to a documented mismatch between the components chosen for this season’s vaccine and currently circulating influenza strains. Adjusted recommendations for the use of antiviral drugs for influenza in the acute care setting for this season are provided.