Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology

TABLE OF CONTENTS      March/April 2015 • Volume 26 • Issue 2

Antimicrobial shortages: Another hurdle for clinicians
L Valiquette, KB Laupland

Childhood encephalitis in Canada in 2015
A Bitnun, SE Richardson

AMMI Canada 2015 Annual Conference: Abstract Titles
AMMI Canada

Public health response to a large-scale endoscopy infection control lapse in a nonhospital clinic
J Willmore, E Ellis, V Etches, L Labrecque, C Osiowy, A Andonov, C McDermaid, A Majury, C Achonu, M Maher, B MacLean, I Levy

In 2011, a nonhospital endoscopy clinic in Ottawa, Ontario, was found to have numerous lapses in infection control procedures during an inspection by the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario. The public was notified and patients who had undergone procedures at the clinic were offered testing for blood-borne pathogens. This article describes the procedure that was followed in response to the lapse, and reports the results of the tests for blood-borne pathogens as well as analyses conducted to determine whether any infections occurred as a result of the infection control lapse.

Prevalence of antimicrobial use in a network of Canadian hospitals in 2002 and 2009
G Taylor, D Gravel, L Saxinger, K Bush, K Simmonds, A Matlow, J Embree, N Le Saux, L Johnston, KN Suh, J Embil, E Henderson, M John, V Roth, A Wong, the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program

The Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program has been performing surveillance of antibiotic-resistant organisms in Canada since 1994. The authors of this study compared two point-prevalence surveys of antimicrobial use that were conducted in hospitals that were participating in the program in 2002 and 2009. The authors compared the use of antimicrobials between these two surveys. The changes in antimicrobial use over time are presented, in addition to potential reasons for and consequences of these changes.

Bacterial communities in neonatal feces are similar to mothers’ placentae
X-D Dong, X-R Li, J-J Luan, X-F Liu, J Peng, Y-Y Luo, C-J Liu

The gut microbiota is known to have a considerable impact on health; some types of organisms, including bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, are considered to be ‘good’ colonizing bacteria, while other species are potentially pathogenic. The initial colonization of a newborn infant affects his/her health in the future. Recently, research has indicated that the fetus may actually be colonized with bacteria during gestation. Accordingly, this study was conducted to assess the similarities in the bacterial species detected in the infant’s first feces with samples obtained from the mother’s placenta and vagina.

Progressive left-sided facial swelling and proptosis
R Kumar, NA Lakhani, U Narsinghani

A 52-year-old HIV-positive man with abdominal pain
T Mehmood, MJ Chua, FA Khasawneh

A 19-year-old woman with pleuritic chest pain
FA Khasawneh, M Mehmood, RA Halloush

A cluster of Bacillus cereus bacteremia cases among injection drug users
MA Benusic, NM Press, LMN Hoang, MG Romney

Bacillus cereus is a bacteria commonly found in nature that is most frequently implicated as the cause of gastrointestinal illness caused by ingestion of contaminated food; however, there are also reports of extraintestinal infections, although rare. This article describes three cases in which B cereus bacteremia occurred among injection drug users living in Vancouver, British Columbia, within a short period of time. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to determine whether these three isolates were related.

Empyema caused by Clostridium bifermentans: A case report
S Edagiz, P Lagace-Wiens, J Embil, J Karlowsky, A Walkty

Previously considered to be nonpathogenic, Clostridium bifermentans has been implicated in a wide variety of infections over the past three decades, ranging from septic arthritis to endocarditis. The authors of this article describe a case involving a 60-year-old man who was found to have an empyema caused by C bifermentans. The authors review similar cases and discuss the course of treatment for this infection.

Sepsis due to Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia associated with bronchopneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli: A case report
V Bîrlutiu

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infections can typically be attributed to exposure to animal products; thus, these infections are more common among farmers, butchers and veterinarians, among others. This article describes a case involving a 54-year-old man who had relative neutropenia subsequent to treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The patient developed E rhusiopathiae bacteremia with concomitant pneumonia. The author of this article suggests a likely route of infection, which is atypical considering the patient did not report exposure to animal products.

AMMI Canada 2015 Annual Conference: Abstracts
AMMI Canada

A 68-year-old woman with recurrent cystitis
M Mutyala, RA Halloush, FA Khasawneh