Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology - Volume 26 Issue 4
TABLE OF CONTENTS      July/August 2015 • Volume 26 • Issue 4
Get shorty!
L Valiquette, KB Laupland

Should pediatric infectious diseases physicians be proponents of probiotics?
JL Robinson

A slowly growing flank mass
PW Lam, DJ Howarth, A Hanbidge, IE Salit

The role of pediatricians as key stakeholders in influencing immunization policy decisions for the introduction of meningitis B vaccine in Canada: The Ontario perspective
H Yamashiro, N Cutcliffe, S Dobson, D Fisman, R Gold

Invasive meningococcal disease is a rapidly progressing infection that can lead to death within 24 h of onset or cause serious life-threatening disabilities. Serogroup B is now the most common form in Canada. In Ontario, the Pediatrics Section of the Ontario Medical Association and the Pediatricians Alliance of Ontario have developed five recommendations regarding immunization policy with a primary focus on providing the vaccine for children. The recommendations presented by the authors are intended to assist practicing clinicians in advocating for the benefits of the new serogroup B vaccine and to spark discussion and build consensus regarding vaccination policies.

Improving public health policy through infection transmission modelling: Guidelines for creating a Community of Practice
SM Moghadas, M Haworth-Brockman, H Isfeld-Kiely, J Kettner

Infection transmission models have been applied in the Canadian public health system to create modelling frameworks and knowledge translation methods that inform public health by linking theory, practice and policy. The Use of Mathematical Modelling in Public Health Decision Making for Infectious Diseases workshop was held by the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling team and the National Collaborating Centre for Infectious Diseases to establish the infrastructure, expertise and resources necessary for building a Community of Practice. The authors discuss the key presentations, as well as summarize the outcomes and action plans that emerged.

Seroprevalences of hepatitis B and hepatitis C among participants of an Asian health fair in the Lower Mainland, British Columbia
S Ip, J-A Ford, K Lau, V Marquez, M Guan, C Klassen, J Chan, WP Kwan, M Krajden, EM Yoshida

In Canada, the seroprevalences of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are believed to vary significantly among different ethnic groups and at-risk populations. Data regarding the prevalence of HBV and HCV in Southeast Asian Canadians may vary significantly from the general population. Because this population may be less likely to participate in epidemiological studies, it is possible that HBV and HCV seroprevalences are under-reported. The authors of this study correlated questionnaire answers regarding vaccination status to serological profiles collected from an Asian health fair in British Columbia to assess the seroprevalences of HBV and HBC in this population.

Usefulness of previous methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus screening results in guiding empirical therapy for S aureus bacteremia
AD Bai, L Burry, A Showler, M Steinberg, D Ricciuto, T Fernandes, A Chiu, S Raybardhan, GA Tomlinson, CM Bell, AM Morris

Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB), which may be caused by methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA), is a leading cause of bloodstream infections. SAB and MRSA can cause an increase in mortality, result in longer hospital stays and increase medical costs. However, it is possible that MRSA colonization may predict infection. Using a retrospective cohort investigation, this study evaluated the clinical utility of past MRSA screening swabs for predicting methicillin resistance and its use in guiding empirical antibiotic therapy for SAB.

Identifying factors associated with changes in CD4+ count in HIV infected adults in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
K Hunt, P Mondal, S Konrad, S Skinner, K Gartner, HJ Lim

More than doubling the national mean, Saskatchewan has the highest incidence of HIV in Canada. The progression of HIV is characterized by the decline in CD4+ T cells over time and can lead to immunological AIDS. Clinicians in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, have observed a more rapid progression to AIDS in the recent years. The goal of this retrospective longitudinal cohort study was to investigate the rate of CD4+ cell depletion, as well as to determine the effects of multiple clinical and social factors that may contribute to an accelerated progression of HIV to AIDS in this population.

Pasteurella multocida non-native joint infection after a dog lick: A case report describing a complicated two-stage revision and a comprehensive review of the literature
PW Lam, AV Page

Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative coccobacillus that is part of the normal oral flora of animals, including domestic cats and dogs. Prosthetic joint infections due to P multocida typically occur following an animal lick or bite. The present review describes a two-stage revision arthroplasty associated with a P multocida joint infection caused by a dog lick. The authors also provide a comprehensive review of the literature surrounding P multocida prosthetic joint infections.

A confirmed case of toxic shock syndrome associated with the use of a menstrual cup
MA Mitchell, S Bisch, S Arntfield, SM Hosseini-Moghaddam

Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is caused by toxic bacteria and has been associated with prolonged, continual use of high-absorbency tampons. This article documents the first case of TSS associated with the use of a menstrual cup in a 37-year-old woman. The authors also discuss the history of TSS associated with tampon use and the mechanisms by which menstrual cups may also lead to the syndrome.

Avian influenza A (H5N1) infection with respiratory failure and meningoencephalitis in a Canadian traveller
N Rajabali, T Lim, C Sokolowski, JD Prevost, EZ Lee

Since 1997, more than 600 individuals worldwide have been infected with the poultry-originating influenza, H5N1. This report describes the first case of avian influenza A (H5N1) in the Western hemisphere in a 28-year-old woman who had just returned from a trip to Beijing, China. The typical manifestations of H5N1 are described, and signs and symptoms are discussed.